Tarride JE, Guo N, Hopkins R, Leslie WD, Morin S, Adachi JD, Papaioannou A, Bessette L, Brown JP, Goeree R.
There is a dearth of information about the burden of osteoporosis in Canadian men. To fill this gap, we conducted a burden of illness study aimed at estimating the economic burden attributable to osteoporosis in Canadian men aged 50 years and older. Five national data sources were used to estimate health care resource utilization and costs (in 2010 Canadian dollars) associated with osteoporosis in men. Any information gap was supplemented by using data from provincial and community sources. Direct medical costs included costs associated with hospitalizations, same day surgeries, emergency room visits, rehabilitation, chronic care, long-term care, home care, physician visits, and prescribed medications. The value of lost productivity from patients and informal caregivers was also determined to provide a societal perspective. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to evaluate the impact of key assumptions on the results. In fiscal year 2007/2008, the total economic burden of treating and rehabilitating male osteoporotic fractures was estimated at $570 million per year, where direct medical costs accounted for 86%. Acute care utilization was responsible for 70% of all direct costs. About 51% of all hospitalizations were for hip fractures and hip fractures alone accounted for 54% of the acute care spending. If a proportion of Canadian men were assumed to live in long-term care facilities due to osteoporosis, the overall annual cost of osteoporosis would increase from $570 million to $910 million. Male osteoporosis has a substantial economic burden on the Canadian society.
Changes in bone biomarker concentrations and musculoskeletal symptoms among breast cancer patients initiating aromatase inhibitor therapy and women without a history of cancer.
Gallicchio L, Macdonald R, Wood B, Rushovich E, Fedarko NS, Helzlsouer KJ.
The objectives of this study were to examine: (1) changes in bone formation (osteocalcin) and bone resorption (cross-linked N-telopeptides of bone type I collagen [NTXs]) markers, as well as calcium, phosphorus, and intact parathyroid hormone, over the first 6 months of aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy among a cohort of breast cancer patients compared with a group of unexposed women without a history of cancer; and (2) whether bone marker changes were associated with musculoskeletal pain. Eligible breast cancer patients (n=49) and postmenopausal women without a history of cancer (n=117) were recruited and followed for 6 months. At baseline, 3 months, and 6 months, a questionnaire was administered to assess pain and medication use, and a blood sample was drawn. Results showed that, among the breast cancer patients, calcium concentrations decreased significantly (-7.8% change; p=0.013) and concentrations of NTXs increased significantly from baseline to 6 months (9.6% change; p=0.012). Changes were not observed for women in the comparison group. Statistically significant differences in percent change between the breast cancer patients and the women in the comparison group were observed for calcium at 6 months (-7.8% versus 0.0%; p=0.025), phosphorus at 6 months (-5.1% versus 16.7%; p=0.003), NTXs at 6 months (9.6% versus -0.7%; p=0.017), and osteocalcin at 6 months (11.5% versus -3.6%; p=0.016). No statistically significant associations were observed between bone turnover marker changes and musculoskeletal pain among the breast cancer patients, although baseline NTXs were higher among women with onset or increase in pain compared with those reporting no pain (p=0.08). Findings from this study suggest that AIs cause changes in bone turnover during the first 6 months of treatment; however, these changes are not associated with musculoskeletal pain. Breast cancer patients initiating AI therapy should be assessed and monitored for fracture risk using known clinical risk factors, including bone density, and managed appropriately.
Habitual levels of high, but not moderate or low, impact activity are positively related to hip BMD and geometry: Results from a population-based study ofadolescents.
Deere K, Sayers A, Rittweger J, Tobias JH.
Musculoskeletal Research Unit, School of Clinical Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.
Whether a certain level of impact needs to be exceeded for physical activity (PA) to benefit bone accrual is currently unclear. To examine this question, we performed a cross-sectional analysis between PA and hip BMD in 724 adolescents (292 boys, mean 17.7 years) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), partitioning outputs from a Newtest accelerometer into six different impact bands. Counts within 2.1 to 3.1g, 3.1 to 4.2g, 4.2 to 5.1g, and >5.1g bands were positively related to femoral neck (FN) BMD, in boys and girls combined, in our minimally adjusted model including age, height, and sex (0.5-1.1g: beta = -0.007, p = 0.8; 1.1-2.1g: beta = 0.003, p = 0.9; 2.1-3.1g: beta = 0.042, p = 0.08; 3.1-4.2g: beta = 0.058, p = 0.009; 4.2-5.1g: beta = 0.070, p = 0.001; >5.1g: beta = 0.080, p < 0.001) (beta = SD change per doubling in activity). Similar positive relationships were observed between high-impact bands and BMD at other hip sites (ward's triangle, total hip), hip structure indices derived by hip structural analysis of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans (FN width, cross-sectional area, cortical thickness), and predicted strength (cross-sectional moment of inertia). In analyses where adjacent bands were combined and then adjusted for other impacts, high impacts (>4.2g) were positively related to FN BMD, whereas, if anything, moderate (2.1-4.2g) and low impacts (0.5-2.1g) were inversely related (low: beta = -0.052, p = 0.2; medium: beta = -0.058, p = 0.2; high: beta = 0.137, p <0.001). Though slightly attenuated, the positive association between PA and FN BMD, confined to high impacts, was still observed after adjustment for fat mass, lean mass, and socioeconomic position (high: beta=0.096, p=0.016). These results suggest that PA associated with impacts >4.2g, such as jumping and running (which further studies suggested requires speeds >10 km/h) is positively related to hip BMD and structure in adolescents, whereas moderate impact activity (eg, jogging) is of little benefit. Hence, PA may only strengthen lower limb bones in adolescents, and possibly adults, if this comprises high-impact activity.